LOGOS (idea, message)
PATHOS (force, emotion) external image sierpins.gif ETHOS (form, manner)

Every communication is essentially a trilateral relationship. Each point of the triangle
influences the others, and all are influenced by the context of the communication. Each point
of the triangle bears some responsibility for the success of the communication, and each
point of the triangle corresponds with one of Aristotle's three appeals (i.e., general means of persuasion).
Rational Appeals (logos)
Emotional Appeals (pathos)
Ethical Appeals (ethos)
appeal to logical reasoning ability of readers* facts
  • case studies
  • statistics
  • experiments
  • logical reasoning
  • analogies
  • anecdotes
  • authority voices
appeal to beliefs and feelingshigher emotions* belief in fairness
  • love
  • pity
  • etc.
lower emotions
  • greed
  • lust
  • revenge
  • avarious
  • etc.
sense you (author) gives as being compentent/fair/authority* trustworthiness
  • credibility
  • reliablity
  • expert testimony
  • reliable sources
  • fairness Think of how one speaks to an opponent: For example on the floor of the Senate in hearted debate the speaker would refer to "My honorable opponent." This is why one refers to the "manner of delivery."